#### Karush-Kuhn-Tucker (KKT) Conditions

• For the problem (P), assume the functions $$f_0,\cdots , f_m$$ and $$h_1,\cdots , h_p$$ are all differentiable with open domains.

• Suppose $$x^∗$$ is primal optimal, $$(\lambda^∗, v^∗)$$ is dual optimal, and there is zero duality gap, then

• $$f_i(x^*) \le 0, i=1,\cdots,m$$ and $$h_i(x^*) = 0, i=1,\cdots,p$$;
• $$v^* \ge 0$$;
• $$\delta f_0(x^*) + \sum_{i=1}^{m} v_i^{*} \delta f_i(x^*) + \sum_{i=1}^{n} \lambda_i^{*} \delta h_i(x^*)=0$$;
• $$v_i^{*} f_i(x^*) = 0, i=1,\cdots,m$$.
• These four conditions, combined together, are called the Karush-Kuhn-Tucker (KKT) conditions.

• For the problem (cP), the converse is also true: for (cP), if $$x^∗$$ and $$(\lambda^*,v^*)$$ satisfy the KKT conditions, then $$x^∗$$ and $$(\lambda^*, v^*)$$ are primal and dual optimal, and the duality gap is zero.

• Consider (cP), and assume Slater’s condition holds. Then the point $$x^∗$$ is primal optimal if and only if there exists some $$(\lambda^*, v^*)$$ that, together with $$x^∗$$, satisfy the KKT conditions. (Only need to think about the $$\to$$ direction.)